Cookie Varieties And What They Can Do
Cookies are like the ghosts of the online marketplace. You cannot necessarily see them, but they are there. They are placed on websites visited by consumers or on consumers’ devices. First-party cookies are placed on websites and can remember login names, shopping cart items, and items previously viewed. Third-party cookies are placed on websites by an entity other than the website itself and may be responsible for delivering targeted ads or providing analytics to the website regarding consumer behavior. Cookies exist in temporary form where they are erased upon quitting an application, or they can be persistent and remain on a user’s device in order to record information over time.
Flash cookies and device fingerprinting are additional methods of tracking consumer data. Flash cookies store information regarding a consumer’s online browsing activities, including user preferences and settings. Device fingerprinting permits tracking of a device over time based on browser configurations and settings or, in the case of mobile applications, device identifiers. One distinctive feature of device fingerprinting is the ability to cross-track consumer behavior, meaning all connected devices used by a particular consumer (i.e., smart phones, laptops, desktops and other smart devices such as smart appliances and home entertainment systems) can be tracked resulting in a contextually full user history.
Consumer Knowledge And Choice
Understanding what cookies are and how they are used affords consumers the ability to make informed decisions. Consumers can place limitations on or all together block or delete cookies. Limiting or deleting cookies may be accomplished by manually configuring browser settings. Consumers can also control cross-device tracking by resetting device identifiers to either block or limit associations made from a consumer’s past activities. Opt-out cookies and Do Not Track are additional methods of blocking or limiting online tracking.
Responsibilities Of Providers And Third Parties
Companies also have a responsibility to consumers relative to collection of consumer data. Website operators and advertising companies should disclose their data collection practices and obtain affirmative consent from consumers before collecting sensitive or personal information. Consumers should be given the right to opt out of collection practices and should be given the tools necessary to do so. Self-regulatory agencies, like the Network Advertising Initiative (NAI) and the Digital Advertising Alliance (DAA) also play a major role in setting guidelines for companies to follow. The DAA, for example, has a set of codes which it will begin enforcing in 2017. One guideline relates specifically to cross-device tracking and will require providers who engage in cross-device tracking to notify users of such practices and allow them to opt out. One particularly helpful component of the guidelines provides that if a consumer opts out on one device, data collected from that device may not then be used for targeted ads on other devices linked to that specific consumer.
In the context of cookies, lack of awareness and choice threatens consumers’ sense of privacy, as well as the level of trust consumers have in the provider of the services used. The onus is on consumers and companies to create online experiences characterized by knowledge, transparency, choice and the ability to set individually sufficient levels of privacy. Therein lies the treat.
Neda Shakoori is a senior associate and leads McManis Faulkner’s Law and Technology Practice. Shakoori is a Certified Information Privacy Professional and provides advice and counseling for clients on issues involving data privacy, cybersecurity and eDiscovery. Shakoori also practices commercial and business litigation in matters involving complex business disputes, business torts, trade secret misappropriation, internal investigations, and intellectual property disputes.